How to Use the Five Basic Camera Controls

Aperture, shutter speed, ISO, white balance, and focus are the five basic camera controls. They are often abbreviated as “ASIWFF.”

Aperture is the size of the opening in the lens through which light passes to enter the camera. It is measured in f-stops; the lower the f-stop number, the larger the aperture. A large aperture (low f-stop number) lets in more light and produces a shallow depth of field, while a small aperture (high f-stop number) lets in less light and produces a deep depth of field.

Shutter speed is the length of time that the shutter is open and exposed to light. It is measured in seconds or fractions of seconds; for example, 1/250th of a second is faster than 1/60th of a second. A fast shutter speed captures freeze motion while a slow shutter speed captures blur motion.

ISO Sensitivity measures how sensitive your camera’s sensor is to incoming light. It’s measured on a scale from 100-6400; with 100 being least sensitive to light and 6400 being most sensitive. A low ISO setting produces little or no image noise but requires more incoming light, while a high ISO

ISO. ISO is your camera sensor’s sensitivity to light

Your camera’s ISO setting determines how sensitive the sensor is to light. The higher the ISO number, the more sensitive it is, and the less light you need to take a decent photo. However, there is such a thing as too much sensitivity. If you go too high with your ISO setting, your photos will start to look grainy and noisy.

There are times when you’ll need to crank up the ISO to get a good photo. For example, if you’re shooting in low light or trying to freeze a fast-moving subject, a higher ISO can be helpful. But for most situations, it’s best to keep your ISO as low as possible while still getting a good exposure.

One way to think about it is this: A lower ISO gives you more leeway in terms of shutter speed and aperture because you don’t need as much light. So if you’re not sure what settings to use in a given situation, start with a lower ISO and then adjust from there based on the other factors at play.


Shutter speed: Shutter speed is the amount of time that the shutter stays open while taking a photograph. A fast shutter speed (1/1000 second or higher) freezes action, while a slow shutter speed (1 second or lower) blurs it. You can also use shutter speed to control how much light enters the camera by leaving the shutter open for a longer period of time to let more light in, or for a shorter period of time to let less light in.

ISO: ISO is short for International Organization for Standardization, and refers to sensitivity ratings given to digital cameras and films. The higher the ISO rating, the more sensitive it is to light, meaning that you can use faster shutter speeds and/or smaller apertures without losing any quality (noise). However, too high an ISO setting can introduce noise into your photos.

White balance: White balance compensates for different colors of light so that white objects appear white rather than discolored in the photo. Different lighting conditions require different whitebalance settings – sunlight requires one setting, shade anothersetting, fluorescent lighting another setting, etc.. If your white balance is set incorrectly, your photo may have an overall color cast that makes it look unnatural..

Focus: In photography terms “focus” refers to how sharp an image appears on yourcamera’s sensor(or film). When you take a picture using autofocus mode(AF),the camera uses its built-in autofocus system to choose what part of the scene should be sharpest .If you want total control over what part of your scene appears most sharp ,you need to use manual focussing(MF).

Frame Rate

The most common frame rates used in film and video production are 24 fps, 25 fps, 30 fps, and 60 fps. In television production, the standard frame rate is 29.97 fps. Higher frame rates are sometimes used for special effects or slow-motion sequences.

When choosing a frame rate for your project, it is important to consider the type of footage you will be capturing as well as your intended audience. For example, if you are shooting documentary footage that will be viewed on television, you will likely want to use a standard frame rate such as 29.97 fps so that your footage can be easily integrated into broadcast programming. However, if you are shooting action-packed scenes for a movie that will be shown in theaters, you may want to use a higher frame rate to capture all of the detail and movement without sacrificing quality..

I'm a photography enthusiast with a passion for classic film cameras and writing. I believe that photography is a powerful tool for storytelling and I strive to create images that are evocative and meaningful. I hope you enjoy my work!