The 8 Design Principles of Ikea That Help Create Functional and Attractive Spaces

There are 8 design principles that designers use to create effective and appealing designs. These principles are: balance, contrast, repetition, alignment, proximity, white space, and color.

Balance is the distribution of visual elements on a page. Symmetrical balance is when elements are evenly distributed on either side of a vertical or horizontal axis. Asymmetrical balance is when elements are not evenly distributed and there is more weight on one side than the other. Radial balance is when elements are arranged around a central point.

Contrast is the difference in visual properties between two elements. Contrast can be used to create visual interest and hierarchy in a design. High contrast usually refers to strong differences between light and dark values, while low contrast usually refers to subtle differences.

Repetition is the repeating of visual elements throughout a design. This can create unity and help guide the viewer’s eye through the design. Alignment is the arrangement of visual elements along a common line or axis. This creates cohesion and can help lead the viewer’s eye through the design as well.

Proximity refers to the closeness of visual elements in a design. Grouping similar items together creates unity and helps organize information hierarchically. White space is negative

Balance. Balance refers to the arrangement of the artwork in a way that does not allow any one element to overpower another

Visual balance is the distribution of the visual weight of elements in an artwork. The goal of a balanced design is to create a sense of stability and order. There are three types of balance: symmetrical, asymmetrical, and radial.

Symmetrical balance is when the elements on one side of the composition mirror those on the other side. This type of balance creates a sense of stability and orderliness. Asymmetrical balance is when the elements on one side of the composition are different from those on the other side. This type of balance can create a sense of interest and movement. Radial balance is when the elements are arranged around a central point. This type can create a feeling of dynamism or movement.

Unity. Unity refers to how well one element functions with the remaining elements

In design, the principle of unity is all about creating a sense of cohesion – or oneness – in your design. This means making sure that all of the elements in your design work together to create a unified look and feel.

When everything in a design works together cohesively, it looks and feels more polished and professional. On the other hand, if the elements in a design are disjointed and don’t seem to go together, it can look sloppy and unfinished.

So how do you create unity in your designs? Here are 8 ways to do it:

1. Use similar colors throughout your design. This is probably the most obvious way to create unity, but it’s also one of the most effective. Using similar colors will help tie all of the elements in your design together and make them look like they belong together.

2. Use similar fonts throughout your design. Just like with color, using similar fonts will help create a sense of unity in your design. Try to stick with only one or two fonts throughout your entire project for best results.


There are many ways to create contrast in a design, but some of the most common methods include using different colors, values (light and dark), textures, and patterns. Contrast can also be created by using contrasting shapes or sizes.

When choosing colors for your design, it is important to consider both lightness and saturation. Two colors that are opposite on the color wheel (such as blue and orange) will have high contrast, while two colors that are similar (such as green and yellow) will have low contrast. You can also increase or decrease the contrast by adding white or black to a color (known as tinting or shading).

Value is another important factor in creating contrast. Using light colors against dark backgrounds or vice versa will usually result in high-contrast designs. Textures can also be used to create contrasts; for example, smooth textures against rough ones or shiny surfaces against matte finishes. Patterns can also be employed for their ability to provide visual interest through differences in scale, directionality, shape, etc.

When using contrast in your designs, it is important not to go overboard; too much contrast can be just as jarring as too little. A good rule of thumb is to use moderate amounts of high-contrast elements with large areas of low-contrast background; this will help keep your viewer’s attention focused where you want it without overwhelming them with too much stimuli all at once.


Regarding design, the principle of variety refers to the use of a variety of elements in order to create visual interest and contrast. This can be achieved through the use of different colors, textures, patterns, shapes, and sizes. By incorporating variety into your design, you can add depth and dimensionality that will make your overall composition more visually appealing.

One way to achieve variety in your design is through the use of color. Using a variety of colors can help to create contrast and visual interest. For example, you might pair a light color with a dark color or vice versa. You could also use complementary colors (colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel) to create contrast. Another option is to use analogous colors (colors that are next to each other on the color wheel) for a more cohesive look.

Texture is another element that can be used to add visual interest and contrast. Different textures can add depth and dimensionality to your design. For example, you might pair a smooth texture with a rough texture or vice versa. You could also use different patterns or shapes within your textures for additional interest.

In addition to using different colors and textures, you can also incorporate various patterns into your design in order to create visual interest and contrast patterning can be achieved through the use of stripes, polka dots, herringbone, etc.). You might also consider using different sizes or proportions within your patterning for added effect (for instance: large-scale polka dots paired with small-scale stripes). Repetition is another important aspect of patterning which refers to repeating an element multiple times throughout your composition (this could be done with colors, shapes, motifs/icons). Repeating an element helps to create unity within your design while still incorporating enough variety so as not injure overall appeal. Last but not least varying line thicknesses throughout your composition can help to prevent a “flat” looking design and add some much needed depth and dimensionality to spice things up! So there you have it the principle of variety in adesign! keep this in mind as you work on future projects and see how you can incorporate a littlebitofeverything(color+texture+pattern+size/proportion+line variation)to achieve layered and visually dynamiccompositions!


When creating a design, a designer must take into account all eight principles in order to create a successful composition. However, some designs will require more focus on certain principles than others. For example, a design that is trying to convey a sense of movement will need to pay more attention to the principle of movement itself.

The principle of movement can be used to create a feeling of dynamism and energy in a design. It is often used to add interest and excitement to an otherwise static composition. Movement can be created through the use of line, shape, color and texture. By using these elements in an effective way, a designer can make a composition appear dynamic and alive.

One way to create movement in a design is by using diagonal lines. Diagonal lines have an inherent sense of motion because they lead the eye from one point to another in an uninterrupted path. This type of line can be used effectively to direct the viewer’s gaze around the entire composition or towards specific points within it. Diagonal lines can also be used as boundaries between different areas within the overall design (such as between foreground and background).

Another way to create movement is through the use of color contrasts. High contrast colors tend to grab attention and draw the eye towards them while low contrast colors tend recede into the background


Harmony in design can be achieved through the use of cohesive color schemes, repetition, and rhythm. Creating a sense of harmony within your design can give it a pleasing and unified look.

When designing with harmony in mind, it is important to create a color scheme first. This will help you choose colors that work well together and will make it easier to create repeating patterns and rhythms. Once you have your color scheme, start thinking about how you can repeat certain elements throughout the design. This could include using similar shapes, colors, or textures in different areas. Repeating elements will help create visual interest and unity within the overall design.

Rhythm can also be used to create harmony within a design. Rhythm is created when there is movement or flow between elements. This could be achieved by using repeating patterns or by positioning elements in an organized manner. Creating rhythm will help lead the eye around the design and can also create a sense of movement. When working with harmony, it’s important to avoid creating too much visual clutter as this can make the design feel busy and overwhelming. Instead, try to focus on creating clean lines and simple forms that work together cohesively


The Golden Ratio is a mathematical ratio that is approximately 1:1.61. It can be found in nature, as well as in man-made objects and artworks. The Golden Ratio has been used in architecture since ancient times, and its popularity has only grown in recent years. Many modern architects believe that the use of the Golden Ratio can help to create more balanced and harmonious buildings.

In design, proportion can be used to create both visual interest and balance. For example, a room with high ceilings may feel unbalanced if all of the furniture is placed against the walls. However, if some furniture is placed in the middle of the room, it can help to create a more balanced feel. Similarly, using different proportions within an overall design can help to add visual interest and variety.


When creating rhythms, designers need to consider both the size and spacing of elements as well as the overall layout of the design. For example, a simple repeating pattern of dots might become more interesting if the dots are different sizes or if they are placed at different intervals. Additionally, breaking up a rhythmic pattern with other elements can add visual interest and variety.

There are several ways to create rhythms in designs:

Repetition: This is the most basic form of rhythm and simply involves repeating an element multiple times. This could be something as simple as repeating a color or shape throughout a design. Alternation: This is similar to repetition but involves alternating between two or more elements instead of just using one element multiple times. For example, you could alternate between two colors or two shapes in your design. Progression: Progression is when an element gradually changes over time while still remaining within the overall rhythmic pattern. For example, you might use progressively larger dots in your design (increasing dot size = increasing energy/movement). Juxtaposition: Juxtaposition occurs when two different rhythms are placed next to each other for contrast (e.g., large/small shapes side-by-side). This can add visual interest and variety to a design while still maintaining some sense of order/structure.

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